Today is the 336th day of 2015 and the 71st day of autumn.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1823, President James Monroe announced a policy establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts, later known as the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1927, Ford Motor Co. introduced the new Model A.
In 1942, a team led by Enrico Fermi engineered the first controlled nuclear fission chain reaction under the stands of the University of Chicago's Stagg Field.
In 1988, Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as prime minister of Pakistan, becoming the first female leader of an Islamic nation.
In 2001, the energy trading company Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Georges Seurat (1859-1891), painter; Maria Callas (1923-1977), opera singer; Gianni Versace (1946-1997), fashion designer; Stone Phillips (1954- ), journalist; Ann Patchett (1963- ), author; Lucy Liu (1968- ), actress; Monica Seles (1973- ), tennis player; Britney Spears (1981- ), singer; Aaron Rodgers (1983- ), football player.
TODAY'S FACT: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which began operations on this day in 1970, employed a workforce of 15,408 in 2014.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1967, Hall of Fame center Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia 76ers set an NBA record for missed free throws in a single game, missing 22 in a 133-109 win over the Seattle SuperSonics.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "A kiss in so much loneliness was like a hand pulling you up out of the water, scooping you up from a place of drowning and into the reckless abundance of air." -- Ann Patchett, "Bel Canto"
TODAY'S NUMBER: 112 -- days Barney Clark, the recipient of the first artificial heart, lived after it was implanted on this day in 1982.
TODAY'S MOON: Between full moon (Nov. 25) and last quarter moon (Dec. 3).