Today is the 212th day of 2015 and the 41st day of summer.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1914, trading on the New York Stock Exchange stopped in response to the outbreak of World War I. It did not resume until December of that year.
In 1964, the American space probe Ranger 7 transmitted the first close-up photographs of the moon.
In 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the START 1 treaty, an agreement to reduce both countries' nuclear arms stockpiles.
In 2006, Cuban dictator Fidel Castro underwent surgery and transferred presidential power to his brother Raul.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Milton Friedman (1912-2006), economist; Primo Levi (1919-1987), chemist/author; Geoffrey Lewis (1935-2015), actor; Evonne Goolagong Cawley (1951- ), tennis player; Michael Biehn (1956- ), actor; Mark Cuban (1958- ), Dallas Mavericks owner; Wesley Snipes (1962- ), actor; J.K. Rowling (1965- ), author; B.J. Novak (1979- ), actor; DeMarcus Ware (1982- ), football player; Charlie Carver (1988- ), actor; A.J. Green (1988- ), football player.
TODAY'S FACT: The first U.S. patent was issued to inventor Samuel Hopkins on this day in 1790, for a process of making potash, an ingredient used in fertilizer.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1961, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game ended in a tie for the first time, when officials in Boston called the game with a 1-1 score after the ninth inning due to rain.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "I want people to take thought about their condition and to recognize that the maintenance of a free society is a very difficult and complicated thing and it requires a self-denying ordinance of the most extreme kind." -- Milton Friedman
TODAY'S NUMBER: 11 million -- estimated population of Cuba in 2015.
TODAY'S MOON: Full moon (July 31).