Today is the 206th day of 2015 and the 35th day of summer.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing U.S. commonwealth.
In 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the first baby to be conceived via in vitro fertilization, was born in Manchester, England.
In 2005, two major unions, the Teamsters and the Service Employees International Union, withdrew from the AFL-CIO.
In 2010, the website WikiLeaks released the "Afghan War Diary," containing more than 75,000 secret documents from the United States' war in Afghanistan.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Henry Knox (1750-1806), first U.S. secretary of war; Maxfield Parrish (1870-1966), painter/illustrator; Eric Hoffer (1902-1983), philosopher; Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958), biophysicist; Estelle Getty (1923-2008), actress; John Gibson (1946- ), radio/TV personality; Walter Payton (1954-1999), football player; Iman (1955- ), model/actress; Thurston Moore (1958- ), musician; Matt LeBlanc (1967- ), actor.
TODAY'S FACT: The Viking Orbiter 1 spacecraft, while searching for potential landing sites for the Viking 2 Lander, snapped the famous "Face on Mars" photo of the planet's surface on this day in 1976.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1976, American Edwin Moses ran in his first international track and field event at the Montreal Olympics -- the 400m hurdles -- and won a gold medal, with a record-setting time of 47.64 seconds.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists." -- Eric Hoffer
TODAY'S NUMBER: 3.4 million -- approximate combined membership of the Teamsters and the Service Employees International unions in 2015.
TODAY'S MOON: Between first quarter moon (July 23) and full moon (July 31).