Today is the 202nd day of 2015 and the 31st day of summer.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1861, the first Battle of Bull Run -- the first major battle of the Civil War -- was fought in Virginia, ending in a Confederate victory.
In 1925, Tennessee teacher John Scopes was convicted of violating the state's law against teaching the theory of evolution.
In 1954, the French surrendered North Vietnam to Communist forces.
In 2011, NASA's Space Shuttle Program came to an end as the shuttle Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Station in Florida.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), author; Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), author/theorist; Isaac Stern (1920-2001), violinist; Don Knotts (1924-2006), actor/comedian; Yusuf Islam aka Cat Stevens (1948- ), singer/songwriter; Garry Trudeau (1948- ), cartoonist; Robin Williams (1951-2014), actor/comedian; Brandi Chastain (1968- ), soccer player; CC Sabathia (1980- ), baseball player; Juno Temple (1989- ), actress.
TODAY'S FACT: Turkish adventurer Erden Eruc completed the first solo, human-powered global circumnavigation on this day in 2012, after traveling 41,196 miles in 1,026 days.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1959, the Boston Red Sox (the last major league team to integrate) fielded their first African-American player when Pumpsie Green entered a game against the Chicago White Sox in the eighth inning.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "The good parts of a book may be only something a writer is lucky enough to overhear, or it may be the wreck of his whole damn life -- and one is as good as the other." -- Ernest Hemingway
TODAY'S NUMBER: -128.6 -- temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) at Vostok Station, Antarctica, on this day in 1983, the lowest recorded temperature in world history.
TODAY'S MOON: Between new moon (July 15) and first quarter moon (July 23).