Today is the 203rd day of 2012 and the 32nd day of summer.
TODAY'S HISTORY: In 1861, the first Battle of Bull Run -- the first major battle of the Civil War -- was fought, ending in Confederate victory.
In 1925, Tennessee teacher John Scopes was convicted of violating the state's law against teaching the theory of evolution.
In 1954, the French surrendered North Vietnam to Communist forces there.
In 2007, the final volume in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was released.
TODAY'S BIRTHDAYS: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), author; Isaac Stern (1920-2001), violinist; Don Knotts (1924-2006), actor/comedian; Janet Reno (1938- ), former U.S. attorney general; Yusuf Islam aka Cat Stevens (1948- ), singer/songwriter; Garry Trudeau (1948- ), Doonesbury cartoonist; Robin Williams (1951- ), actor; Jon Lovitz (1957- ), actor; CC Sabathia (1980- ), baseball player.
TODAY'S SPORTS: In 1959, the Boston Red Sox (the last major league team to integrate) fielded their first African-American player when Pumpsie Green entered a game against the Chicago White Sox in the eighth inning.
TODAY'S FACT: The Harry Potter series has been translated into 68 languages other than English.
TODAY'S QUOTE: "All good books have one thing in common -- they are truer than if they had really happened." -- Ernest Hemingway
TODAY'S NUMBER: $100 -- amount John Scopes was ordered to pay upon his conviction. Though the conviction was overturned on appeal, the Butler Act -- which had made the teaching of evolution criminal -- stayed on Tennessee's law books until 1967.
TODAY'S MOON: Between new moon (July 19) and first quarter moon (July 26).