DEAR ABBY: Last Veterans Day, you printed a story that someone sent you about why "Taps" is played at military funerals. Since I spent 22 years in the Army and studied military traditions, I knew it was not a true story -- nice and sentimental, but untrue. I have enclosed the true story of "Taps." Please share it with your readers. -- JIM BAKER, MITCHELLVILLE, MD.
DEAR JIM: Hundreds of veterans and students of history wrote to correct the misinformation. The following is a condensed version of the origin of "Taps" taken from many published accounts, including a U.S. Army Military District of Washington fact sheet:
The 24-note melancholy bugle call known as "Taps" is thought to be a revision of a French bugle signal, called "tatoo," that notified soldiers to cease an evening's drinking and return to their garrisons. It was sounded an hour before the final bugle call to end the day by extinguishing fires and lights. The last five measures of the "tatoo" resemble "Taps."
The revision that gave us the present-day "Taps" was made during America's Civil War by Union Gen. Daniel Adams Butterfield, heading a brigade camped at Harrison Landing, Va., near Richmond. Up to that time, the U.S. Army's infantry call to end the day was the French final call, "L'Extinction des feux." Gen. Butterfield decided the "lights out" music was too formal to signal the day's end. One day in July 1862, he recalled the "tatoo" music and hummed a version of it to an aide who wrote it down in music. Butterfield then asked the brigade bugler, Oliver W. Norton, to play the notes and, after listening, lengthened and shortened them while keeping his original melody.
He ordered Norton to play this new call at the end of each day thereafter, instead of the regulation call. The music was heard and appreciated by other brigades, who asked for copies and adopted this bugle call. It was even adopted by Confederate buglers.
This music was made the official Army bugle call after the war, but was not given the name "Taps" until 1874.
The first time "Taps" was played at a military funeral may also have been in Virginia soon after Butterfield composed it. Union Capt. John Tidball, head of an artillery battery, ordered it played for the burial of a cannoneer killed in action. Not wanting to reveal the battery's position in the woods to the enemy nearby, Tidball substituted "Taps" for the traditional three rifle volleys fired over the grave. "Taps" was also played at the funeral of Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson 10 months after it was composed.
"Taps" now is played by the military at burial and memorial services, to accompany the lowering of the flag, and to signal the "lights out" command at day's end.
Now, dear readers, I believe I am on target about the origin of "Taps" -- although a few details differ from other versions.
DEAR ABBY: My wife and I are friendly with a couple from another state. We visit back and forth quite frequently and enjoy each other's company immensely.
The problem arises when we dine out. I feel that when we visit them and eat out I should pay the bill, because they are giving us overnight lodging and meals at their house. However, when they visit us and we eat out, I feel that I should pay the bill because they are my guests and I should take care of everything. It wouldn't be a problem except that our friends feel the same way, and when the bill comes we both go through the "I've got it" routine. Both of us go to great lengths to pay the bill.
My question: Who should pay in each situation? -- CURIOUS IN VEAZIE, MAINE
DEAR CURIOUS: My answer: For crying out loud, take turns!
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